The Symphony of Warfare: Harmonizing Combat Arms, Support Arms, and Services in the Tech Era

How Advanced Technologies Shape Tomorrow's Battlefields.

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Lt Col Manoj K Channan
Lt Col Manoj K Channan
Lt Col Manoj K Channan (Retd) served in the Indian Army, Armoured Corps, 65 Armoured Regiment, 27 August 83- 07 April 2007. Operational experience in the Indian Army includes Sri Lanka – OP PAWAN, Nagaland and Manipur – OP HIFAZAT, and Bhalra - Bhaderwah, District Doda Jammu and Kashmir, including setting up of a counter-insurgency school – OP RAKSHAK. He regularly contributes to Defence and Security issues in the Financial Express online, Defence and Strategy, Fauji India Magazine and Salute Magazine. *Views are personal.

The future of land warfare will be impacted by technological breakthroughs such as artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and machine learning, creating a complex and dynamic landscape. Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things are revolutionising command and control systems, enhancing situational awareness, and enabling precise targeting, significantly impacting strategic planning and real-time decision-making.

The rise of swarm drones and autonomous systems is challenging existing defence strategies, potentially profoundly altering the balance between offensive and defensive tactics. The growing significance of cyber and electronic warfare in land conflicts highlights the need to understand and prepare for hacking, cyber-attacks, electronic jamming, and countermeasures.

Integrating human soldiers with robotic systems and AI raises critical questions about the evolving role and training of soldiers, along with ethical and practical challenges. 

Armies are developing new strategies and technologies to counter the threat of low-cost drones, which pose unique challenges to traditional defence systems. Utilising strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis in modern warfare is vital to countering technological advancements through strategic planning, as evidenced in recent conflicts.

The human element remains crucial in technology-driven warfare, with human decision-making complementing technological systems. Recent incidents, like the Hamas attack on Israel in October 2023, illustrate the dual nature of technology as both an asset and a liability in modern warfare, offering lessons and implications for future conflicts.

Advanced warfare technologies present enormous ethical and legal issues, necessitating a rethinking of international rules and ethical norms. Land warfare technology speculation highlights states’ need to prepare by investing in new technologies, reviewing military strategy, and adjusting to a constantly changing technical landscape.

Integration of AI and IoT in Warfare

  • Automated Decision-Making. AI algorithms can analyse vast amounts of data to make rapid decisions, enhancing the speed and efficiency of command-and-control systems. This capability is crucial in modern warfare, where split-second decisions can be decisive.
  • Predictive Analysis. AI can predict enemy movements and strategies by analysing patterns and historical data. This predictive capacity aids commanders in making informed strategic decisions.
  • Resource Allocation. AI can optimise the allocation of resources, including troops, vehicles, and weapons, ensuring they are used most effectively.

IoT for Enhanced Situational Awareness

  • Real-Time Data Collection. IoT devices, such as sensors and drones, provide real-time battlefield information. This data includes troop movements, terrain analysis, and enemy positions.
  • Network-Centric Warfare. IoT facilitates a network-centric approach to warfare, shifting focus from individual platforms to an integrated network of sensors, shooters, and decision-makers. This integration enhances situational awareness and response times.
  • Wearable Technology for Soldiers. To command centres, soldiers equipped with IoT devices can relay vital information, including health status, location, and environmental conditions.

Precision Targeting

  • Target Acquisition. AI algorithms can quickly process data from various sources to identify and prioritise targets. This capability is critical in dynamic combat environments.
  • Minimising Collateral Damage. AI can aid in selecting weapons and attack modes that minimise collateral damage, a growing concern in modern warfare ethics and law.

Strategic Planning and Real-Time Decision-Making

  • Dynamic Strategy Formulation. AI can assist military strategists in developing dynamic and adaptable strategies based on real-time battlefield data.
  • Scenario Simulation and Wargaming. AI-powered simulations can provide valuable insights into potential outcomes of different strategies, enhancing strategic planning.
  •  Crisis Management. In fast-evolving situations, AI systems can offer rapid assessments and recommendations, aiding commanders in making timely decisions under pressure.

Broader Implications

  • Cybersecurity Concerns. The reliance on AI and IoT brings heightened cybersecurity risks. Protecting these systems from hacking and interference is critical.
  • Ethical and Legal Challenges. The use of AI in decision-making processes raises ethical questions, especially regarding accountability in autonomous weapon systems.
  •  Human Oversight. While AI can enhance decision-making, human oversight remains crucial to managing moral, ethical, and strategic considerations.

Swarm Drones and Autonomous Systems

  • Mass Coordination and Saturation. Swarm drones, leveraging AI for coordinated attacks, can overwhelm enemy defences by sheer numbers. Their ability to operate as a cohesive unit makes them highly effective against traditional defence systems.
  • Versatility and Adaptability. These drones can adapt to different roles, from surveillance to direct engagement, and quickly switch tactics based on real-time battlefield data.
  • Cost-Effective Implementation. Swarm drones, often smaller and less expensive than traditional aircraft, allow for a cost-effective means of achieving air superiority or conducting surveillance operations.

Autonomous Systems

  • Self-Sufficient Decision Making. Autonomous systems can operate independently, making real-time decisions based on programmed parameters. This autonomy allows for rapid response to changing battlefield conditions without the need for direct human control.
  •  Advanced Reconnaissance and Targeting. These systems can perform complex reconnaissance missions, gathering crucial intelligence and identifying key targets, often in environments too risky for human soldiers.
  • Enhanced Endurance and Persistence. Autonomous systems, free from human limitations like fatigue, can maintain operations over extended periods, providing continuous pressure on the enemy.

Offensive Strategies

  • Rapid Penetration and Disruption. Swarm drones and autonomous systems can penetrate enemy lines swiftly, disrupting command and control structures and logistic chains.
  • Asymmetric Warfare Advantage. Smaller forces can leverage these technologies to level the playing field against more significant, more conventional forces.

 Defensive Strategies

  • Anti-Swarm Technologies: Develop countermeasures such as electronic jamming, directed energy weapons, or specialised interceptors to mitigate the effectiveness of drone swarms.
  • Automated Defence Systems. Using AI-driven systems for quick detection and neutralisation of autonomous threats.

Challenges and Considerations

  • Countermeasures and Defence Development. The rise of autonomous systems necessitates the development of advanced countermeasures, both in terms of technology and strategy.
  • Ethical and Legal Implications. Using autonomous systems in warfare raises significant ethical questions, particularly regarding accountability and decision-making in lethal engagements.
  •  Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities. The reliance on digital communication and control systems makes these technologies susceptible to hacking and cyber warfare.

Cyber Warfare and Electronic Warfare

The growing significance of cyber and electronic warfare in modern land battles marks a pivotal shift in military strategy and capabilities. These forms of warfare extend beyond traditional combat methods, focusing on disrupting and manipulating information systems and electronic infrastructure.

  • Hacking and Cyber-Attacks. This involves breaching an adversary’s computer networks to steal, alter, or destroy information. Such attacks can cripple critical military infrastructure, disrupt communications, and even manipulate enemy data.
  •  Information Warfare. Cyber warfare also includes efforts to influence public opinion or military morale by spreading digital propaganda or disinformation.
  •  Economic Disruption. Targeting a nation’s economic infrastructure, such as financial systems or energy grids, can directly impact military capacity and civilian morale.
  •  Espionage and Intelligence Gathering. Cyber tools are used for espionage, providing critical insights into enemy plans, capabilities, and vulnerabilities.

Electronic Warfare

  • Jamming and Electronic Deception. Electronic warfare uses electromagnetic spectrum to jam, deceive, or disrupt enemy communications and radar systems. This can blind or mislead enemy forces during critical moments of battle.
  • Electronic Protection. Developing countermeasures to protect military communications and radar systems from enemy jamming or electronic attacks.
  •  Signal Intelligence (SIGINT). Monitoring, intercepting, and analysing enemy electronic transmissions to gain strategic or tactical advantages.

Impact on Land Battles

  • Disrupting Command and Control. Both cyber and electronic warfare can disrupt enemy command and control capabilities, leading to confusion and a breakdown in enemy operations.
  • Integrating with Conventional Operations. Cyber and electronic attacks are increasingly integrated with conventional military operations, creating a multi-domain battlefield where digital and physical attacks are coordinated.
  •  Asymmetric Warfare Tool. Cyber and electronic warfare offer smaller nations or non-state actors the means to challenge more considerable military powers by exploiting vulnerabilities in their sophisticated technology systems.

Challenges and Countermeasures

  • Defensive Measures. Developing robust cyber defences and electronic countermeasures is essential to protect against these threats. This includes not only technology solutions but also training personnel in cybersecurity practices.
  • Legal and Ethical Considerations. Cyber and electronic warfare operate in a complex legal and ethical landscape, raising questions about acceptable targets and the collateral damage of such operations, especially in civilian domains.
  •  Maintaining Operational Security. Maintaining operational security becomes increasingly challenging with the growing threat of cyber espionage. Militaries must secure their communications and data against sophisticated breaches.

Human-Machine Teaming

Integrating human soldiers with robotic systems and AI, commonly called human-machine teaming, is a significant evolution in military operations. This integration impacts the armed forces’ roles, training, and ethical considerations.

Impact on Roles and Training of Soldiers

  • Changing Roles. Soldiers will increasingly assume roles as supervisors, coordinators, and team members alongside AI and robotic systems. This shift moves the focus from direct combat roles to oversight and strategic management of autonomous systems.
  •  Advanced Training. Training programs must evolve to include skills for operating and interacting with AI and robotic systems. This includes technical proficiency, decision-making skills in conjunction with AI recommendations, and understanding the capabilities and limitations of these systems.
  •  Human-AI Collaboration Skills. Soldiers will require training in collaboration and communication with AI systems, focusing on effectively combining human intuition and experience with AI-driven data analysis.

Ethical and Practical Challenges

  • Decision-Making Authority. A critical ethical issue is determining the extent of decision-making authority granted to AI, especially in lethal scenarios. Human judgment’s role in using lethal force is a significant concern.
  • Accountability. In a mixed human-machine operational environment, determining accountability, especially in cases of failure or unintended consequences, becomes complex. It raises questions about whether responsibility lies with the operator, the military command, or the technology developers.
  •  Reliability and Trust. Building trust in AI and robotic systems is critical. Soldiers need to rely on the accuracy and reliability of these systems, especially in high-stakes situations.

Practical Considerations

  • Integration and Interoperability. Seamless integration of AI and robotic systems within existing military structures is a challenge. This includes ensuring interoperability between various systems and legacy equipment.
  • Communication Challenges. Effective communication between humans and machines, and across a diverse array of systems, is essential for coordinated operations.
  •  Training for Unpredictability. Training soldiers to anticipate and react to the unpredictable nature of AI and robotic systems in combat situations is crucial.

Offensive/ Strategies Against Low-Cost Drones

The emergence of low-cost, independent drones in modern warfare presents a unique challenge for traditional defence systems. These drones, often small and agile, can be used for surveillance, targeting, and even as weapons, making them a significant threat on the battlefield. In response, armies worldwide are developing various strategies and technologies to counter them.

Detection and Tracking Systems

  • Radar and Sensor Networks. New radar and sensor systems are being developed to detect small, low-flying drones that conventional radars might miss.
  • Acoustic Detection. Some systems use acoustic sensors to detect the sound of drones, which can effectively identify their presence in a given area.

Electronic and Cyber Countermeasures

  • Jamming Technologies. Electronic jamming disrupts the communication link between the drone and its operator, rendering it inoperable.
  • Hacking and Cyber-Tools. Cyber-tools can take control of the drone’s navigation systems, either neutralising it or even turning it back on its original operators.

Physical Interception

  • Anti-Drone Missiles and Projectiles. Some militaries are developing specialised missiles and projectiles to shoot down drones. These are designed to be precise enough to target small drones without causing excessive collateral damage.
  • Laser Systems. Directed energy weapons like high-powered lasers can disable drones by overheating their components.
  •  Net-carrying drones or Projectiles. These are designed to physically capture drones by entangling them in nets.

Drone Defence Systems

  • Drone-Catching Drones. Deploying defensive drones capable of capturing or disabling offensive drones.
  • Automated AI Systems. AI-driven systems can rapidly identify drone threats and engage appropriate countermeasures without human intervention.

Training and Tactics

  • Specialised Training. Military personnel receive specialised training to operate anti-drone equipment and recognise and respond to drone threats.
  • Tactical Adjustments. Armies are adjusting their tactics to mitigate the risks posed by drones, including dispersion of forces, camouflage, and using terrain for cover.

Legal and Ethical Considerations

  • Rules of Engagement. To minimise collateral damage, establish clear rules for engaging drones, especially in areas with civilian populations.
  • Countermeasure Regulations. Ensuring that countermeasures comply with domestic and international laws, especially regarding jamming and cyber-operations.

SWOT Analysis in Modern Warfare

SWOT analysis, a strategic planning technique that assesses Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, is increasingly relevant in modern warfare, especially with the integration of advanced technologies. This tool helps military strategists understand their capabilities, anticipate enemy actions, and adapt to the rapidly changing dynamics of the battlefield.


  • Technological Superiority: A military force with advanced technology (e.g., AI, drones, cyber capabilities) can dominate the battlefield through superior intelligence, surveillance, and weaponry.
  • Well-Trained Personnel: Effective training and experienced personnel are pivotal in utilising advanced military equipment and strategies.
  •  Robust Logistics and Supply Chain: A strong logistics network ensures the timely supply of essential resources, crucial in sustained military operations.


  • Over-Reliance on Technology. Excessive dependence on technology can become a weakness if it leads to a lack of basic warfare skills or if the technology fails.
  • Cyber Vulnerabilities.: Advanced technologies are susceptible to cyber-attacks, which can cripple critical military infrastructure.
  •  Resource Limitations. Resource constraints, including human resources and funding, can limit a military’s operational capabilities.


  • Technological Advancements. Ongoing technological innovations provide opportunities to enhance military capabilities, like developing hypersonic missiles or stealth technology.
  • Alliances and Partnerships. Forming strategic alliances can augment capabilities, share resources, and provide geopolitical advantages.
  •  Information Warfare. Leveraging cyber capabilities for information warfare to undermine enemy morale or disrupt their communication and command systems.


  • Asymmetric Warfare Tactics. Opponents may use guerrilla tactics, cyber-attacks, or terrorist-style operations, which can be difficult to counter with conventional military strength.
  • Technological Countermeasures: Adversaries might develop or acquire countermeasures against advanced technologies, like anti-drone systems or electronic jamming.
  •  Global Political and Economic Shifts: Global politics and economic changes can affect military strategies and resource allocation.

Examples of Effective Counter Strategies

  • Ukrainian Conflict. The use of anti-tank missiles and portable air defence systems by Ukrainian forces effectively countered Russian armoured units’ technological and numerical superiority in the 2022 conflict.
  • Israeli Iron Dome. Israel’s Iron Dome is an example of effectively countering rocket threats through technological innovation. It provides a defensive shield against short-range projectiles, significantly reducing casualties and damage.
  • U.S. Cyber Command Operations. The United States has employed cyber operations to counter ISIS by disrupting its communication and propaganda capabilities, showcasing the use of cyber warfare to undermine enemy operations without direct kinetic engagement.

Human Interface

The human element plays a crucial role in technology-driven warfare, acting as a complement and a counterbalance to advanced technological systems. In an era where warfare increasingly relies on sophisticated technology, the value of human judgment, creativity, and ethical considerations remains irreplaceable.

Complementing Technological Systems

  • Judgment and Decision-Making. Human judgment is essential in interpreting data and making complex decisions involving context, nuance, and ethical considerations. While AI can process vast amounts of data, it cannot understand the context of how humans can.
  • Adaptability and Creativity. Humans excel in adaptability and creative problem-solving, especially in unpredictable and dynamic combat scenarios. Machines, on the other hand, operate within predefined parameters and may struggle with novel situations.
  •  Ethical and Moral Decision-Making. In situations involving life-and-death decisions, the human capacity for ethical reasoning is crucial. This is particularly important in decisions about the use of lethal force, where legal and moral considerations are paramount.

Counterbalancing Technological Systems

  • Overcoming Limitations of AI. Humans can identify and compensate for AI systems’ limitations and potential biases. This oversight is critical to prevent misinterpretation of data or flawed decision-making based on AI recommendations.
  • Maintaining Control. Keeping humans in the loop ensures that control over critical decisions, especially those involving lethal force, remains with humans, thereby maintaining accountability and ethical standards.
  •  Emotional Intelligence and Human Interaction. Human qualities like empathy, morale, and leadership are essential in managing troops and maintaining team cohesion. These aspects are beyond the scope of AI and robotic systems.

Training and Integration Challenges

  • Training in Technology Utilization. As warfare becomes more technology-driven, training programs must evolve to equip military personnel with the skills to interact with and manage advanced systems effectively.
  • Balancing Technical and Tactical Skills. Maintaining a balance between technological expertise and traditional military skills is crucial, ensuring that soldiers are well-rounded and capable in various aspects of warfare.

Ethical and Legal Implications

  • Accountability in Autonomous Systems. Integrating autonomous systems in warfare raises questions about accountability, especially in cases of collateral damage or unintended consequences.
  • Setting Boundaries for AI Use. Establishing clear guidelines and boundaries for using AI in military operations is essential to maintain ethical and legal standards.

Predictions for the Future of Land Warfare Technology

The future trajectory of land warfare technology will likely be shaped by rapid advancements in various fields, leading to transformative changes in military strategies and operations. Nations must prepare for these changes by investing in new technologies, rethinking strategies, and adapting to the evolving technological landscape.

  • Increased Autonomy in Warfare. The use of autonomous systems, including AI-driven drones and robotic combat units, is expected to increase, leading to more unmanned operations on the battlefield.
  • Cyber Warfare and Cyber Defence Proliferation. As reliance on technology grows, cyber warfare capabilities will become critical to national defence, requiring sophisticated cyber defence mechanisms.
  •  Advanced Sensor and Surveillance Technologies. Enhanced sensors and surveillance technologies will improve battlefield awareness, making intelligence-gathering more sophisticated and comprehensive.
  •  Integration of Quantum Computing. Quantum computing could revolutionise encryption, data processing, and decision-making processes in military operations, offering unprecedented computational power.
  •  Hyper-Personalised Warfare. Advances in AI and data analytics may lead to more personalised warfare strategies, where military actions are tailored based on deep analysis of the opponent’s specific characteristics and vulnerabilities.

Preparing for Future Changes

  • Investment in Research and Development (R&D). Continuous investment in R&D is crucial to keep pace with technological advancements and to develop new military capabilities.
  • Cybersecurity Focus. Strengthening cybersecurity infrastructure will be vital to protect against growing cyber threats and to secure military communications and data.
  • Training and Reskilling of Military Personnel. Armies will need to reskill and retrain soldiers to operate new technologies and adapt to the changing nature of warfare. This includes training in cyber operations, AI systems, and autonomous technologies.
  • Updating Military Doctrines and Strategies. Military doctrines and strategies must evolve to incorporate new technologies and address the changing nature of threats, including asymmetric warfare tactics.
  •  International Collaboration and Regulation. Engaging in international collaboration for technology development and establishing regulations around the ethical use of emerging technologies in warfare is essential.
  •  Preparedness for Asymmetric Warfare. Nations must prepare for asymmetric warfare scenarios where non-state actors or smaller nations use unconventional tactics and technologies.
  •  Resilience Against Disinformation. Developing strategies to counteract information warfare and protect against disinformation campaigns will be increasingly important.

Quantum Computing: Land Warfare 

Quantum computing, with its potential to revolutionise data processing and encryption, will significantly impact land warfare. A SWOT analysis provides insights into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with integrating quantum computing in military operations.


  • Unprecedented Processing Power. Quantum computers can process complex problems much faster than classical computers, enhancing decision-making processes in warfare.
  • Advanced Encryption and Decryption. Quantum computing can break current encryption standards, giving a strategic edge in intelligence and cybersecurity.
  • Enhanced Data Analysis. Quantum computers can quickly analyse vast amounts of data, improving battlefield intelligence and logistics planning.
  • Simulations and Strategic Planning. They enable highly accurate simulations of complex scenarios, aiding in strategic planning and training.


  • Technological Immaturity. Quantum computing is still in its developmental stage and not yet ready for widespread practical deployment.
  • High Resource Requirements. Quantum computers require specialised environments, such as extreme cooling, making them challenging to deploy in field conditions.
  •  Complexity in Operation and Maintenance. These systems are complex to operate and maintain, requiring highly specialised knowledge and skills.


  • Quantum-Secure Communications. Developing quantum encryption methods (like Quantum Key Distribution) can create secure communication channels that are virtually unbreakable.
  • Enhanced Situational Awareness. Quantum provides superior situational awareness in real-time by rapidly processing data from various sources.
  •  Collaboration with Civilian Research. Military investment in quantum computing can spur advancements in civilian applications, leading to broader technological growth.
  •  Quantum Sensors. These can offer highly accurate navigation and detection capabilities, beneficial in GPS-denied environments.


  • Quantum Espionage. The ability of quantum computers to break current encryption poses a significant threat to national security if possessed by adversaries.
  • Rapid Obsolescence of Current Systems. Existing cryptographic standards could become obsolete, necessitating a complete overhaul of cybersecurity systems.
  •  Global Race for Quantum Supremacy. A competitive race for quantum computing dominance could lead to increased tensions and an arms race in cyberspace.
  •  Ethical and Legal Challenges. Using quantum computing in warfare raises new ethical and legal dilemmas, particularly regarding privacy and data security.

 The Dual Role of Technology: Asset and Liability

  • Advanced Offensive Capabilities. In this case, the use of technology by Hamas, such as rockets or drones, demonstrates how non-state actors can employ relatively advanced technology to challenge a nation-state’s military. This underscores the proliferation of technology even to smaller or non-conventional forces.
  • Defensive Systems. Israel’s use of the Iron Dome missile defence system showcases how technology can effectively neutralise incoming threats as a crucial asset in protecting civilian populations and critical infrastructure. 
  • Cyber Warfare Elements. If elements of cyber warfare were involved, such as hacking or electronic interference, it would highlight how cyber capabilities are integral to modern conflicts, capable of disrupting enemy communications or misdirecting resources.

Lessons Learned

  • Technology Proliferation. The incident underscores the reality of technology proliferation, where advanced military capabilities are increasingly accessible to various actors, including non-state entities.
  • Importance of Defensive Technologies. The effectiveness of missile defence systems like the Iron Dome in intercepting threats illustrates the importance of investing in defensive technologies to counterbalance offensive capabilities.
  •  Cybersecurity as a Priority. Any cyber warfare aspects of the conflict reinforce the need for robust cybersecurity measures to protect critical infrastructure and information networks.
  •  Asymmetric Warfare Tactics. The scenario also highlights the dynamics of asymmetric warfare, where non-state actors leverage technology to level the playing field against more conventionally powerful militaries.

Implications for Future Conflicts

  • Widening Access to Advanced Weapons. Future conflicts will likely see a continued trend of non-state actors and smaller nations accessing sophisticated weaponry, changing the traditional power dynamics in warfare.
  • Need for Comprehensive Defence Strategies. Nations must develop comprehensive defence strategies encompassing not just traditional military capabilities but also cyber defences and countermeasures against unconventional threats.
  •  Importance of International Cooperation. The proliferation of technology and its use by various actors in conflicts underscores the need for international cooperation in regulating and monitoring the transfer and use of advanced military technologies.
  •  Ethical and Legal Challenges. The increasing use of technology in warfare brings forth ethical and legal challenges, particularly in terms of civilian safety, the use of autonomous systems, and adherence to international law.

Increased use of Hybrid Warfare

The October 7, 2023, incident, thus, serves as a vivid reminder of the complexities introduced by technology in modern warfare. It demonstrates the necessity for continuous adaptation and advancement in military strategies and technologies to address the evolving landscape of global conflicts.

The increased use of hybrid warfare, which combines conventional military tactics with irregular tactics such as cyber-attacks, disinformation, and the use of non-state actors, poses complex challenges, particularly in terms of its impact on civilians, including women and children. The exploitation of human rights and Geneva Conventions by perpetrators and the strategic use of social media to influence global perceptions further complicate the response to such conflicts.

Impact on Women and Children

  • Increased Vulnerability. In hybrid warfare scenarios, where the lines between combatants and civilians are blurred, women and children often face increased risks of violence, exploitation, and abuse.
  • Psychological Trauma. The use of tactics like disinformation and targeted propaganda can create a climate of fear and uncertainty, leading to widespread psychological trauma among vulnerable populations.

Exploitation of Human Rights and Geneva Conventions

  • Misuse as a Shield. Perpetrators may commit acts of violence and then cynically invoke human rights or Geneva Conventions to protect themselves from retaliation or prosecution.
  • Manipulation of International Law. There is a risk of manipulating international laws to justify or obscure illegal actions, creating a complex legal and moral landscape.

Use of social media

  • Influencing Global Perception. Social media platforms can effectively shape global opinions about a conflict, often presenting biased or false narratives to gain international sympathy or support.
  • Spread of Propaganda. Social media allows for the rapid spread of propaganda, which can be used to recruit fighters, fundraise, or spread misinformation to destabilise regions.

Responses and Strategies

  • Strengthening International Law Enforcement. Strong mechanisms are needed to enforce international laws and hold perpetrators accountable, even in complex hybrid warfare scenarios.
  • Educating and Informing Populations. Educating civilians about misinformation and propaganda tactics can help build resilience against psychological operations.
  •  Targeted Protection Measures. Implementing targeted measures to protect women and children from the specific threats posed by hybrid warfare.
  •  Monitoring Social Media. International bodies and NGOs could monitor social media to identify and counteract false narratives and propaganda.
  •  Collaboration Between Nations. International collaboration is essential to address the cross-border nature of hybrid warfare effectively, especially when dealing with non-state actors.


The future of land warfare technology points towards increased automation, enhanced cyber capabilities, and more sophisticated surveillance and intelligence systems. Nations must prepare by investing in new technologies, updating their military strategies, and ensuring their defence forces are trained and equipped to handle these advanced systems. Adapting to this rapidly changing landscape will require a combination of technological, strategic, and policy-level responses to maintain security and operational effectiveness.

The profound impact of advanced technologies on modern warfare. Integrating AI and IoT has transformed military capabilities and strategies, enhanced efficiency and situational awareness and introduced ethical and cybersecurity concerns. Swarm drones and autonomous systems redefine warfare, requiring new defensive tactics and adherence to legal and ethical standards. Cyber and electronic warfare have become essential, demanding constant innovation in offence and defence while addressing operational and ethical challenges. The proliferation of low-cost drones requires a multifaceted defence approach, including technology, tactics, and training.

Hybrid warfare poses complex challenges, impacting populations and exploiting digital platforms, necessitating a coordinated international response focusing on human rights and information integrity. The human element remains crucial in technology-driven warfare for judgment and ethical oversight. Human-machine teaming transforms military operations but requires ethical, practical, and training considerations. SWOT analysis is vital for informed decision-making in this technology-centric era. Lastly, quantum computing offers potential advantages in data processing and secure communications, but its developmental challenges and implications, like quantum espionage, require continuous assessment and adaptation by military strategists.

Ultimately, it’s crucial to understand that technology alone cannot determine the outcome of wars or conflicts. Success hinges on a harmonised effort involving Combat Arms, Combat Support Arms, and Services. These groups must embrace technological advancements and be ready to counteract the continually evolving threats. Strategic planners should be acutely aware of this dynamic landscape. They must ensure the proper allocation of resources, both in terms of manpower and equipment, to mitigate these emerging threats effectively.


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