Cognitive Behavioural Therapy beats Kundalini yoga for treating generalized anxiety disorder
This will not be music to millions of Indian ears who repose their faith in yoga. “Kundalini yoga can reduce anxiety for adults with a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but study results support Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) remaining first-line treatment,” states a report by US researchers.
Led by Naomi M. Simon from NYU, the study was designed “to assess whether yoga (Kundalini yoga) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for GAD are each more effective than a control condition (stress education) and whether yoga is non-inferior to CBT for the treatment of GAD. “
GAD is common and the patients seek complementary and alternative therapies, including yoga. CBT is expensive and there is a stigma attached to the patients undergoing the treatment. However, the data to support the efficiency of yoga compared to the first-line treatments is not available.
Yoga is popular in the US with an estimated 14.3% of the population (in 2017) practicing yoga. Yoga consists of physical postures, exercises, breath regulation, relaxation, meditation and mindfulness practice. Mindfulness-based approaches do have benefits for anxiety disorders, but the effect of yoga is less clear. Meta-analyses of yoga for anxiety have yielded inconclusive results in the past.
A pilot study indicated that Kundalini yoga (KY), involving all the traditional components of yoga, including breathing practices and meditation, may be considered for GAD.
A standardized Kundalini Yoga procedure was developed by the Guru Ram Das Center for Medicine and Humanology (S.B.S.K.). The protocol included physical postures and exercises, breathing techniques, relaxation exercises, meditation and mindfulness practices, yoga theory, philosophy, and psychology. Cognitive behavioral therapy used an evidence-based GAD procedure, including 5 core treatment modules including psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, progressive muscle relaxation, worry exposures, and in vivo exposure exercises; and targeted metacognitions ie, worrying about worrying, but no explicit mindfulness components. Stress education is a standardized control condition, including lectures on physiologic, psychological, and medical effects of stress; effects of lifestyle behaviors, such as caffeine, alcohol, and smoking; resilience factors; and the importance of exercise and diet. Homework consisted of listening to audio files about stress, nutrition, and lifestyle.
The finding on Kundalini Yoga may not fully generalize to all yoga types, say the study authors.
One of the study supervisors was Dr Sat Bir Khalsa, a practitioner and certified instructor in Kundalini Yoga as taught by Yogi Bhajan.
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has been tasked to establish major COVID-19 medical facilities in four major Indian cities: New Delhi, Lucknow,...
The third phase of India’s COVID-19 vaccination drive is currently underway with over 10 crore vaccine doses already administered to citizens over 45 years...
Following a year that witnessed a raging pandemic, lockdowns leading to work from home as the paradigm shift, more people, the world over have...
Bleeding gums may be a sign of gingivitis, an early stage of periodontal disease, but the researchers' advice to check Vitamin C deficiency along...
India had abruptly removed the cumulative COVID case data in August 2020, leaving just active cases for the day versus cumulative recoveries and deaths,...